PERIODONTAL & PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Periodontal (Gum) disease is an infectious disease and a significant cause of tooth loss in humans all over the world. It affects the gums and the supporting tissues of your teeth, such as, the jawbone and periodontal ligament. There is a growing body of scientific evidence suggesting that the infection of your gums and jawbone (periodontal disease) can negatively impact other parts of your body, such as, your heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, brain,... Recent research suggests a link between gum disease & cardiovascular disease, stroke, acute coronary syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, diabetes, arthritis, respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), osteoporosis, adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth & low birth weight), cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, erectile dysfunction,... Treating and, more importantly, preventing gum disease will reduce the risks of infections and associated systemic conditions. Healthy gums can lead to a healthier life.
Recent research has shown that:
- Implant superinfections with opportunistic bacteria, yeast and viruses, are plausible risks associated to the wrong use of systemic antibiotics. Lack of follow-up and antibiotic susceptibility testing may lead to ongoing microbial challenges that exacerbate the disease progression. A personalized 3-month supportive therapy may help prevent risks by sustaining a normal ecological balance, decreasing specific pathogen proportions and maintaining ideal plaque control. “Systemic antibiotics and the risk of superinfection in peri-implantitis” Archives of Oral Biology 2016; 64: 39-50. Fernando Verdugo, Theresia Laksmana, Agurne Uribarri.
- Patients that have dental implants and poor oral hygiene may develop areas of inflammation (peri-implantitis) that could attract specific pathogens, such as, herpes-viruses & bacteria. This co-infection could further increase inflammation and bone loss around your implants if undetected. Regular maintenance and good plaque control is crucial in this regard. Peri-implantitis lesions (inflammation of the supporting dental implant tissues) can worsen depending on specific microbial challenge and host susceptibility. “Epstein-Barr virus associated peri-impantitis: A split mouth study”. Clinical Oral Investigations 2015;19:535-43. Verdugo F, Castillo A, Castillo F, Uribarri A.
- Oral contraceptives may increase the risk of severe periodontitis and seems to cause a selection of certain Candida species. Women using oral contraceptives showed a higher prevalence of aggressive bacteria & yeast capable of causing gum inflammation & bone loss. “The impact of oral contraceptives on women’s periodontal health and the subgingival occurrence of aggressive periodontopathogens and Candida species” Journal of Periodontology 2010, 81:1010-8. Brusca M, Rosa A, Albaina O, Moragues MD, Verdugo F, Pontón J.
- The use of anabolic androgenic steroids in men may increase also the risk for severe periodontitis (gum disease), gum inflammation and bone loss by allowing an increase in the proportions of aggressive periodontal (gum) pathogenic bacteria and yeast. “Anabolic steroids affect human periodontal health and microbiota”. Clinical Oral Investigations 2014; 18:1579-86. Brusca M, Verdugo F, Amighini C, Albaina O, Moragues MD.
Fernando Verdugo, DMD, PhD PERIODONTAL & DENTAL IMPLANT SURGEON DIPLOMATE IN PERIODONTOLOGY & DENTAL IMPLANT SURGERY
AMERICAN BOARD OF PERIODONTOLOGY